The first three projects Evestra Onkologia is working on are:
Breast cancer (WHO: http://www.who.int/cancer/detection/breastcancer/en/index1.html) is the most common cancer in women both in the developed and less developed world. It is estimated that worldwide over 508 000 women died in 2011 due to breast cancer (Global Health Estimates, WHO 2013). Although breast cancer is thought to be a disease of the developed world, almost 50% of breast cancer cases and 58% of deaths occur in less developed countries (GLOBOCAN 2008).
Incidence rates vary greatly worldwide from 19.3 per 100,000 women in Eastern Africa to 89.7 per 100,000 women in Western Europe. In most of the developing regions the incidence rates are below 40 per 100,000 (GLOBOCAN 2008). The lowest incidence rates are found in most African countries but here breast cancer incidence rates are also increasing.
Breast cancer survival rates vary greatly worldwide, ranging from 80% or over in North America, Sweden and Japan to around 60% in middle-income countries and below 40% in low-income countries (Coleman et al., 2008). The low survival rates in less developed countries can be explained mainly by the lack of early detection programmes, resulting in a high proportion of women presenting with late-stage disease, as well as by the lack of adequate diagnosis and treatment facilities.
With approximately 900.000 new cases per year, prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in men worldwide. It is the sixth leading cause of death from cancer with approximately 260.000 deaths annually. It represents the third most fatal form of cancer among men (after lung and colorectal cancer). While it is rare that men younger than 50 develop this disease, the number of new cases then increases steadily with age.
Endometriosis is a disease characterized by the presence of functional endometrium beyond the natural place of its occurrence. Clinical manifestations of the disease are various. Sometimes the disease is not associated with the occurrence of symptoms. However, in most cases patients are experiencing menstrual pains (dysmenorrhea), dyspareunia, non-cyclical pelvic pain and sub-fertility. Currently managing both symptoms and development of the disease is related to unmet medical niche. It is estimated that this important clinical problem relates to as much as 60% of women with menstrual pain and 30% of women with sub-fertility. The disease affects 167 million women a year and is contributing to a significant reduction in the quality of life, generate high social and medical costs.